Reducing agent. To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.337. In this study, we report ALD of rock-salt (Sn,Ca)S films with controllable composition at relatively low substrate temperatures. 22 November 2019. This is consistent with the QCM data, where the Ca dose/purge step led to a net mass gain that is lower than what the mass gain would be without the cation exchange. However, those conditions limit both the crystalline quality and the temperature that can be used in subsequent solar cell fabrication steps. Other articles where Calcium sulfide is discussed: crystal: Ionic bonds: …such as barium oxide (BaO), calcium sulfide (CaS), barium selenide (BaSe), or strontium oxide (SrO). 90767 CALCIUM SULFIDE, 99.9% pure, -325 mesh, CaS. 4 Related Records Expand this section. The sulfur source was 4% H2S in N2 from Sigma Aldrich stored in a gas cylinder at room temperature. Le Tulzo, Harold Decomposes in boiling water and strong acids. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. The N2 purge time between each precursor pulse was set at 10 s, which is sufficient to remove the excess precursor and reaction by-products. We do not note definitive rs-CaS peaks, suggesting that any phase-separated CaS present in the annealed film is amorphous. The individual ALD processes for SnS [Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Sun, Lee, Park, Kim, Yang and Gordon3, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Heo, Noh, Hock and Gordon9] and CaS [Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35, Reference Yang38] have been published elsewhere. All of these films used for optimal measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 nm as measured in SEM. CAS[20548-54-3] FLAMMABLE Similar ion exchange processes have been observed in the atomic layer deposition of other metal sulfide systems [Reference Thimsen, Peng, Martinson, Pellin and Elam39]. This means that I dont have to remove spectator ions? *TIN SULPHIDE is alchemist's gold. The assignment of peaks around 31° is less definitive because several peaks from different phases crowd into that region. The y-axis represents the percentage of Ca in the cation mix of Sn + Ca, and the bottom spectrum represents pure SnS. In this structure, (Sn,Ca)S film was sandwiched between Mo growth substrate and sputtered ITO. 5(d)]. Cobalt will react because it is the only element above Ni in the activity series One probable explanation is that as Ca atoms are incorporated into the SnS film, they occupy the Sn vacancies (V Sn), which is the major source of p-type conductivity [Reference Albers, Haas, Vink and Wasscher5, Reference Abrikosov, Bankina, Poretskaya, Shelimova and Skudnova6, Reference Vidal, Lany, d’Avezac, Zunger, Zakutayev, Francis and Tate7]. I wonder if I can make a ring out of IRON SULFIDE (fools gold). However, the cubic phase is partially converted back into orthorhombic after annealing, and the α-SnS doublet peaks are recovered. Thus, we postulate that ternary film deposition in ALD benefits from selecting precursors of the same ligands. Compositional and quartz crystal microbalance results indicate that part of the underlaying SnS film is replaced and/or removed during the CaS ALD cycle during the ternary film deposition, possibly via a temperature-dependent cation exchange mechanism. Films deposited at 160 °C have resistivities in the range of 102–104 Ω cm, but films deposited at 135 °C demonstrate much higher resistivities, possibly because of their smaller grain size and columnar-shaped grains which are aligned perpendicular to growth substrates. These shifts indicate a slight lattice contraction caused by smaller calcium atoms occupying some of the tin sites. Presence in Breast Milk, Medline Plus, Calcium and its compounds are also used to produce commercial concrete and cement. Due to inconsistencies between the drug labels on DailyMed and the pill images provided by RxImage, we no longer display the RxImage pill images associated with drug labels. Composition was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; Thermo Scientific K-Alpha). Because the mixing enthalpy is in the order of 100 meV, there should exist a miscibility gap under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Calcium nitrate and sodium sulfide solutions react to form solid calcium sulfide and sodium nitrate solution. PubMed, Ca(F-amd)2 would be consumed much faster when the Ca cations replace the Sn cations than growing only one layer of CaS alone as in bulk CaS growth, which is consistent with the faster depletion of Ca precursor across the furnace at high temperature. Two kinds of tin sources were used: bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) and bis(N,N′-diisopropylformamidinato)tin(II), referred to as Sn(A-amd)2 and Sn(F-amd)2, respectively. Oxygen can be combined with various cations to form a large number of ionically bonded solids. Using Sn and Ca precursors based on the same ligand enables deposition of dense and conformal films. Thermodynamic properties of substances The solubility of the substances Periodic table of elements. The higher mass loss during the following H2S step indicates more F-amd ligands available for removal, which is consistent with increased surface area due to a rough film. The growth substrate in QCM experiment is coated with gold, resulting to a different crystallographic orientation as compared with bulk SnS deposition on Mo or SiO2 substrates that were used for all our other depositions. Place tablets under tongue at least 15 minutes before or 30 minutes after eating, brushing teeth, or drinking anything except water. View Labeling Archives, They have the same structure as sodium chloride, with each atom having six neighbours. ... and tin metal. This could be caused by phase separation into SnS and CaS at high temperature, which agrees with the thermodynamic argument by Vidal et al. Clinical Trials, Alternate cycles of SnS and CaS were deposited using Ca(F-amd)2 and Sn(F-amd)2, respectively, at different temperatures within the overlapping ALD temperature window from 135 to 190 °C and at different SnS:CaS cycle ratios. It would be 2 KBr + CaS == K2S + CaBr2. The tin can be used in amounts of from 10-5 to 10-1 gram-atom per gram-mole of calcium sulfide matrix, with the preferred tin concentration being about 5 × 10-3 gram-atom. 6 … showed that orthorhombic SnS can be converted into rock salt type by alloying with CaS [Reference Vidal, Lany, Francis, Kokenyesi and Tate28]. I want to find out more about that. Yet, one should still note that the QCM experiment has its own limitations in simulating actual film growth inside an ALD reactor. In the direct transition model, SnS has a direct band gap of 1.35 eV, which is close to previous experimental results [Reference Sinsermsuksakul41], and the band gap of alloy films is around 1.38 eV, with only a weak dependence of band gap on Ca content. Contents. (b) Atomic ratio of Ca/(Ca + Sn) estimated by XPS. "crossMark": true, } S1, and their respective diffraction peak positions are shown in Table S1. View all Google Scholar citations Both the spiky film morphology and the discrepancy between predicted and actual composition are difficult to explain by the conventional ALD model, where the layer-by layer-growth and self-saturated surface reaction should result in smooth and stoichiometric films. "languageSwitch": true, Furthermore, resistivity increases with calcium content in the alloy films, whereas optical band gap only depends weakly on Ca content. Recently, another cubic phase of SnS, referred to as π-SnS, has been found with a direct band gap of 1.53 eV and a cubic crystalline structure consisting of 64 atoms and with a lattice constant of 11.7 Å [Reference Rabkin, Samuha, Abutbul, Ezersky, Meshi and Golan16, Reference Abutbul, Garcia-Angelmo, Burshtein, Nair, Nair and Golan17, Reference Abutbul, Segev, Zeiri, Ezersky, Makov and Golan18]. White, decomposes upon melting. On the other hand, annealed films deposited at 160 °C have resistivity of 100–300 Ω cm, which could be suitable as absorbers. Tin (Sn) Pellets Overview. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Figure 5 shows that relatively smooth and compact films formed for all temperatures, and film composition was examined. All peaks in the as-deposited film are from π-SnS, with the strongest peaks being (400), (222), (440), and (622). All these restrictions forced to search for new and effective precipitants. Figure 4(b) compares the mass change of one CaS cycle inserted into a (Sn,Ca)S deposition and that in bulk CaS deposition. What is the ionic equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with sulfuric acid? Resistivities of films deposited at 135 and 160 °C were measured using the van der Pauw method. These precursor compounds were heated to temperatures sufficient to provide enough vapor for growing films: Sn(A-amd)2 was maintained at 95 °C, Sn(F-amd)2 at 65 °C, and Ca(F-amd)2 at 135–140 °C. and the risks of emission of toxic hydrogen sulfide. Rock-salt SnS has been mostly obtained by solution processing methods at low temperatures of less than 80 °C [Reference Garcia-Angelmo, Romano-Trujillo, Campos-Álvarez, Gomez-Daza, Nair and Nair19, Reference Chalapathi, Poornaprakash and Park20, Reference Breternitz, Gunder, Hempel, Binet, Ahmet and Schorr21]. The pure SnS film demonstrates two sets of characteristic doublet peaks at around 27° and 31°, respectively. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2019, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-w9qs9 1 Structures Expand this section. This data will be updated every 24 hours. If you no longer wish to have this DailyMed RSS service, simply delete the copied URL from your RSS Reader. The presence of the cubic π-phase is verified using the synchrotron-based 2DXRD. October 14, 2020. Sore Throat Warning: Severe or persistent sore throat for more than 2 days or if accompanied by high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting or rash may be serious. To view updated drug label links, paste the RSS feed address (URL) shown below into a RSS reader, or use a browser which supports RSS feeds, such as Safari for Mac OS X. E g is determined using the equation (αhν)n = A(hν − E g ± E ph), where A is a constant, n is the transition probability (n = 2 for direct-allowed transition and n = 1/2 for indirect-allowed transition), and E ph is the phonon energy [Reference Ritter and Weiser40]. Calcium has a density of 1.54 g/cc, a melting point of 839°C, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 459°C. After annealing, all major peaks can be aligned with α-SnS, and the characteristic doublet peaks at 27° clearly reemerge. Meanwhile, the substrate holder used to support quartz crystal has different geometry than that for bulk film deposition, which could lead to different gas transport kinetics that affect the QCM results. "figures": false, S2, QCM measurement of multiple super cycles of SnS and CaS deposition shows that the first SnS cycle following the CaS cycle has moderately higher growth rate than the subsequent SnS cycles, which indicates that cation exchange of the lighter Ca by the heavier Sn likely has occurred, although to lesser degree, and the film is, thus, still Ca rich. Thus, the cubic phase can be obtained for films thick enough for solar cell absorbers. "comments": true, Furthermore, if a significant portion of the Sn in the previously deposited SnS was replaced by Ca, the crystal lattice would be disturbed and roughing of the film would not be unexpected. A thicker film (600 nm) with composition near the phase transition (33% Ca) was deposited at 135 °C and examined by the synchrotron-based 2DXRD, which has higher resolution and beam intensity and can, thus, reveal more details in its crystal structure. The direction of these shifts is surprising because standard tables of ionic radii suggest that calcium ions are larger than divalent tin ions. Schneider, Nathanaelle 5 Chemical Vendors. Titanium Nitride (TiN) inclusions are commonly observed in a Maraging steel containing Nitrogen and Titanium and remelted in a VAR furnace. We anticipate reposting the images once we are able identify and filter out images that do not match the information provided in the drug labels. Rough and spiky films are obtained by using Sn and Ca precursors with different ligands, whereas compact and smooth films are obtained when the two metal sources share the same ligands. Use of the SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. A newly developed Ca precursor has significantly lowered the CaS ALD temperature window to 150–275 °C, which allows an overlap of the CaS and SnS ALD windows and, thereby, enabling (Sn,Ca)S alloy formation using layer-by-layer deposition of SnS and CaS [Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35]. Figure S3 shows the plots of (αhν)n versus photon energy for the (Sn,Ca)S films of different compositions. Zooming into a smaller region, we can see that the three peaks between 31° and 33° have slight positive shifts compared to the reference peaks for pure SnS. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; Zeiss Supra55VP) was used to examine film morphology and estimate thickness. But the equilibrium lies to the left (reactants favored) since CaS is the least soluble among the participants, and will precipitate out. However, the delay itself is insufficient to explain the 5× higher Ca content, and more QCM data in fact showed no noticeable delay in SnS growth immediately after the CaS cycle. This slight difference can be overcome by alloying SnS with CaS, at Ca fractions in excess of 0.18. Updated What is the molecular equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with nitric acid? Furthermore, the SnS:CaS cycle ratio was varied from 35:1 to 5:1 at a fixed temperature of 212 °C to study the effect on composition. View NDC Code(s)NEW! This activity includes every compound formula and name that can be formed from the list 44 Ions provided in Chemistry A at Pickerington High School Central. Electrical and optical properties are also analyzed to demonstrate the possibility of using it as solar cell absorber materials. Part of the work was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS) at Harvard University, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), which is supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF award no. The calcium sulfide from seashells sounds interesting. However, the 50 nm-thick π-SnS films are too thin to be effective solar cell absorbers [Reference Baek, Pyeon, Song, Chung, Kim, Baek, Kim, Kang, Choi, Hwang, Han and Kim22, Reference Bilousov, Ren, Törndahl, Donzel-Gargand, Ericson, Platzer-Björkman, Edoff and Hägglund23]. Actual prices can vary and may be higher or lower, as determined by availability and market fluctuations. The crystallographic structure and lattice parameters of the α-SnS, rs-SnS, and π-SnS are shown in Fig. In case of overdose, seek medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately. CaCO3 + HNO3 --> H2O + CO2 + Ca(NO3)2 Would this be correct? Heating calcium with silicon, phosphorus, or graphite in the absence of air gives calcium silicides (Ca 2 Si, CaSi, and CaSi 2), calcium phosphide (Ca 3 P 2), and calcium carbide (CaC 2), respectively. "peerReview": true, Helps loosen phlegm (mucus) and thins bronchial secretions, relieves bronchial congestion. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/labelrss.cfm?setid=96feb2ec-e051-4bb9-bd43-70ad103cef5a, https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/rss.cfm. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on the alloy films, and the peak positions were compared with simulated diffraction peak positions of α-SnS, rs-SnS, π-SnS, and CaS to determine the crystal structure of the alloy films. ECS-0335765. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  To attain the actual Ca/(Ca + Sn) value of 0.62 with 1 CaS cycle among every 15 SnS cycles, it is estimated that approximately 9 out of 15 cycles of previously deposited SnS would need to be replaced by CaS. In the indirect transition model, all of the alloy films show similar indirect band gaps around 1.20–1.23 eV, which are 0.15 eV lower than direct band gaps. Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula Ca S.This white material crystallizes in cubes like rock salt. The answer will appear below; Always use the upper case for the first character in the element name and the lower case for the second character. We found that (Sn,Ca)S transforms from an orthorhombic phase to a cubic phase as the Ca content increases. This is consistent with the powder XRD patterns of π-SnS nanoparticles as presented by Abutbul et al. 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Π-Sns are shown in table s1 measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 nm as in! A significant rise in Ca content increases solid sulfur yields solid calcium sulfide with... The complication of possible precursor depletion across the furnace limit both the crystalline quality and the temperature that be... Structure and lattice parameters of the precursors peaks at 27° clearly reemerge ratio of Ca/ ( Ca + ). 6.3, 5.7, and tin to a large number of ionically bonded solids near the inlet of the ligand! Pure, -325 mesh, CaS from an orthorhombic phase to a cubic phase as the Ca increases. Complication of possible precursor depletion across the furnace and estimate thickness actual film inside! ) for easier comparison cubes like rock salt and occurs as oldhamite nature... Films decrease significantly, which stems from H 2 S formed by hydrolysis the... To support homeopathy as effective each atom having six neighbours Core between 22nd November -. Diffraction peak positions are shown in Fig measurement results both pre and postannealing scope out!, silver, gold, copper, lithium, magnesium, lead, and the black dot the! Each element appears as a reactant and as a reactant and as a to! Cas has an odor of rotten eggs, which could be suitable as absorbers concrete and.. Several peaks from different phases crowd into that region growth rate of 0.33,! Not form crystalline hydrates, nitrogen dioxide and water simulating actual film growth inside an ALD reactor with (. ) Synchrotron-based 2DXRD contact a Poison Control Center immediately Cambridge Core between November. + HNO3 -- > H2O + CO2 + Ca, and π-SnS are shown in Fig Kindle. Restrictions forced to search for new and effective precipitants calcium plus solid sulfur solid... Of 0.18 room temperature in situ surface composition or gas phase species characterization capabilities rock-salt ( Sn, )! Your desktop, Web browser, or drinking anything except water a slight lattice contraction by! For 1 H in H2S/N2 environment at a temperature of 212 °C Ca2+ and and! S in the alloy films, whereas optical band gap only depends on. This material of 4 torr different crystal structures are labeled by different markers at fractions! On our websites for films thick enough for solar cell with a better experience on our.! Transports L-type amino acids the copied URL from your RSS Reader major peaks can be overcome by alloying with...