The King made his new mistress the Duchess of Châteauroux. To defend its territories. [116], The King, the Queen and her daughters were major patrons of music. [31], The Government continued its policy of religious repression, aimed at the Jansenists and the so-called "Gallicans" in Parlements of nobles. This privilege, which had been suspended by Louis XIV, had been restored to the Parlements during the regency. All these little girls with no education will not take it from me. His mother was Marie Josephe of Saxony.His parents liked his older brother more than Louis and were upset when Louis's brother died while still a … Cardinal Fleury responded with a carefully orchestrated campaign of diplomacy. The second son, the Duke of Anjou, born in 1730, died in 1733. For the rest of his reign, the Parlements swore allegiance to the King, but took every opportunity to resist his new taxes and the King's authority. "[107] On 7 May, he summoned his confessor and was given the final rites. The King was offended by her refusal and thereafter never shared her bed. He was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. The King referred privately to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes ("braggart of crimes"). [69], Machaud D'Arnouville was brought into the government with the sponsorship of d'Argenson, but the two men gradually became rivals and enemies. The King charmed the visiting Russian Tsar by identifying the major rivers, cities and geographic features of Russia. He first won assurances from Britain and Holland that they would not interfere in the war, while lining up alliances with Spain and the King of Sardinia in exchange for pieces of the Habsburg Empire. The elderly Cardinal Fleury had too little energy left to oppose this war. The marriage was celebrated in September 1725 when the king was 15. It used art as propaganda on a grand scale. Engels, Jens Ivo. The King was immediately attracted to Marie-Anne; however, she insisted that he expel her older sister from the Court before she would become his mistress. The view of many historians is that Louis was unequal to the high expectations of his subjects. I will remain with my hands in my pockets, unless of course they want to elect a Protestant emperor. Louis XV, byname Louis the Well-Beloved, French Louis le Bien-Aimé, (born February 15, 1710, Versailles, France—died May 10, 1774, Versailles), king of France from 1715 to 1774, whose ineffectual rule contributed to the decline of royal authority that led to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. The Parlement of Normandy immediately supported that of Besançon; it wrote a remonstrance to the King on 5 July 1760, declaring that the Parlements represented all classes: "One King, one law, one Parlement; the law of the kingdom is a sacred pact of your alliance with the French nation; it is a kind of contract which destines the King to reign and the people to obey. The Duke of Orleans became regent. He drafted his own will, writing: "If I made errors, it was not from a lack of will, but from a lack of talents, and for not having been supported as I wished to have been, particularly in matters of religion. Acknowledging that he was committing adultery, Louis refused thereafter to go to confession and to take the sacrament. Louis XV secured for him capital of 223,000 livres who reported an annual revenue of 24,300 livres. Britain, pressed by the threat of a French invasion of rest of the Netherlands, urged a quick settlement, despite objections from Austria and Sardinina. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. The pomp and magnificence remained....Finance ministers soon became expert swindlers, cheating and extorting on a grand scale. In order to save on court expenses, he sent the youngest four daughters of the king to be educated at the Abbey of Fontevrault. He changed the tax code to try to balance the national budget. Martinique fell to the British in 1762. When the King died, Voltaire wrote of his reign, "Fifty-six years, consumed with fatigues and wanderings."[122]. He was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. The King was a proficient amateur astronomer, who collaborated with the best French astronomers. The Cardinal de Fleury tried to persuade him to confess and to give up his mistress, but without success. Following the dismissal of Choiseul, the King encouraged his cousin and ally Charles III of Spain to settle the crisis over the Falkland Islands with the aim of avoiding a war. Louis died at 3:15 in the morning on 10 May 1774. One of the first serious conflicts that disturbed the early reign of Louis XV was a battle within the Catholic Church over a Papal Bull called Unigenitus. [117] The King himself, like his grandfather Louis XIV, was taught to dance ballet but danced only once in public, in 1725. First, his mother caught the measles. Le Roy Ladurie wrote that the people felt he had reduced the sacred nature of the monarchy, and thereby diminished himself. [79], The new Controller of Finances, Henri Bertin, a protege of Madame Pompadour named on 23 November 1759, reduced the luxury taxes of his predecessor, and instead proposed a broadening of the tax base to include those classes which had long been excluded, and a new survey of the wealth of the nobility. Therefore, you have to leave tomorrow. Louis XV, King of France, was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy. At birth, he received the level of importance of the Duke of Berry's title, which he always wore his father until December 20, 1765's death. The French offensive in Hesse-Kassel was defeated by the Prussians, the Spanish army in Portugal made little progress, and the British took the opportunity to land on Martinique and to invade Spain's colony Cuba. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [14] Besides his academic studies, He received a practical education in government. She was deeply upset by the death of her son the Dauphin in 1765, and died on 24 June 1768.[24]. [118], Louis XV, guided largely by Madame de Pompadour, was the most important art patron of the period. The King personally removed Diderot from the list of those nominated for the Académie française, and in 1759 the Encyclopédie was formally banned. [15] He also persuaded wealthy Parisians to invest in the Mississippi Company, a scheme for the colonization of French territory of Louisiana. working for nothing).[53]. Fleury made the Papal doctrine Unigenitus part of French law and forbade any debate in Parlement, which caused the silent opposition to grow. In 1752, after the killing of French envoy, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, the French sent reinforcements and compelled Washington and his men to withdraw. Explaining the decision later to the Duke de Broglie, the King wrote, "The principles of the Choiseuls are too contrary to religion, and therefore to royal authority."[100]. The illness continued its course; one visitor on 9 May, the Duc de Croy, said the King's face resembled, with the darkening of the eruptions of the smallpox, "a mask of bronze". Firstly, Louis was never supposed to be king. The Regent disgraced the stubborn and vain Villeroy in 1722, depriving the king of whom he almost considered as his father. Aphrodite Lucie Auguste (Versailles, 8 March 1763 – Artonne (Puy-de-Dôme), 22 February 1819). Spain was defeated on both land and sea, and quickly sought peace. [57], The peace achieved by Louis with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle lasted only seven years. At the end of August 1755, Marie Therese, the Empress of Austria, discreetly wrote a letter to Louis XV, which was passed by the Austrian ambassador in Paris to Madame de Pomapadour for delivery to the King. The Republic of Genoa did not have the military forces to conquer the island, and permitted Louis to send French troops to occupy the ports and major cities, to keep the island from falling into British hands. In addition to the existing naval arsenals in Toulon, Brest and Rochefort, he opened two more in Marseille (1762) and Lorient (1764). During his 59-year reign, France was never threatened by conquest as no foreign army crossed its borders (though some of its overseas colonies were lost). On 27 April 1732, the Archbishop of Paris threatened to excommunicate any member of the Church who read the Jansenist journal, Nouvelles Ecclésiastiques. Her father had hoped for a son, and so her birth was not greeted with much enthusiasm. His major architectural projects were the work of his favorite court architect, Ange-Jacques Gabriel. For seven years, France was engaged in a costly war with constantly shifting alliances. In 1764, in a former Jesuit school he had closed, he created a new military preparatory school, to prepare students for the recently founded Military Academy. The Jesuits departed, and were welcomed in Prussia and in Russia. In his message, read to them by one of his ministers, he declared, "It is in my person alone that sovereign power resides...To me alone belongs the legislative power, without dependence and without sharing...The public order emanates entirely from me...Confusion and anarchy are taking the place of legitimate order, and the scandalous spectacle of a contradictory rivaling my sovereign power reduces me to the sad necessity to use all the power that I received from God to preserve my peoples from the sad consequences of these enterprises. On 15 August 1761, France, Spain, Naples and Parma, all ruled by monarchs of the Bourbon family, signed the first "Family Pact" with a system of reciprocal guarantees of support if one or the other were attacked. Kenneth N. Jassie and Jeffrey Merrick, "We Don't Have a King: Popular Protest and the Image of the Illegitimate King in the Reign of Louis XV". Jansenism had attracted many important followers in France, including the philosopher Blaise Pascal, the poet Racine, aristocrats including Madame de Sévigné and Madame de Lafayette. Few monarchs have ruled for longer. At the same time, they signed a secret treaty with Charles III of Spain engaging Spain to declare war on Great Britain if the war was not over by May 1762. Omissions? Although Madame de Pompadour’s favourite, Étienne-François, Duke de Choiseul (foreign minister from 1758 to 1770), restored France’s military strength, the failure of Louis’s secret diplomacy in Poland enabled Russia, Austria, and Prussia to partition Poland (1772) and virtually eliminate French influence in central Europe. Louis began construction of the Church of Saint-Geneviève, now the Pantheon (1758–90) He also constructed monumental squares and surrounding buildings in the centers of Nancy, Bordeaux, and Rennes. The house where he was born was burned down, his father, wife and daughter were banished from France, and his brothers and sisters were required to change their name. Updates? Troisième fils de Louis, duc de Bourgogne, et de Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie, il porte le titre de duc d'Anjou puis celui de Dauphin à la mort de son frère aîné Louis (1712). In his later life the King retained his passion for science and geography; he created departments in physics (1769) and mechanics (1773) at the Collège de France.,[13] and he sponsored the first complete and accurate map of France, the Cartes de Cassini. For much of his lifetime Louis XV was celebrated as a national hero. However, the King's favor turned to Jeanne Bécu, the comtesse du Barry. The King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II, was dying, and his official heir was Stanislaus I Leszczyński, the father of the Queen of France. The marriage contract was signed on 25 November, and the future bride came to France and took up residence in the Louvre. Transportation and shipping were improved with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal (linking the Oise and Somme rivers) in 1738, which was later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countries, and the systematic building of a national road network. Montesquieu published De l'esprit des Lois in 1748. Both the child and mother died in childbirth. [73], The campaign against the Jesuits divided the royal household; his son the Dauphin, his daughters and the Queen supported the Jesuits, while Madame de Pompadaour, whose influence in the court was criticized by the Jesuits, wanted them gone. Louis XV was the third son of the Duke of Burgundy and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy. The first measure was an issue of bonds, paying five percent interest, to pay off the 36 million livres of debt caused by the cost of the war. Louis responded immediately on 1 May 1756 by sealing a formal defensive treaty with Austria, the first Treaty of Versailles, offering to defend Austria in case of a Prussian attack. He was known popularly as Le Bien-aimé (the well-beloved). The King recovered physically very quickly, but the attack had a depressive effect on his spirits. The King held them responsible for not preventing the assassination attempt, and their government displeased Madame de Pompadour. Louis was not, however, a totally passive monarch. [29], Louis's Controller-General of Finances Michel Robert Le Peletier des Forts (1726–1730), stabilized the French currency, though he was expelled for enriching himself in 1730. The fluctuation of grain prices would eventually become a factor in the French Revolution.[70]. She was the illegitimate daughter of a Paris fermier-general, and was married to a banker, Charles Guillaume Lenormant d'Étoiles. [28], Fleury showed the King the virtues of a stable government; he kept the same Minister of War, Bauyn d'Angervilliers, and controller of the currency, Philibert Orry, for twelve years, and his minister of foreign affairs, Germain Louis Chauvelin, for ten years. However, in 1742, the balance of the war shifted against France. The Jansenists were allied with the Gallicans, theologians who wanted the Catholic Church in France to be distinctly French. Since Louis XV, the great-grandson of Louis XIV, was only 5 years old when he became king, the regent, the Duc d'Orléans, was the actual ruler until his death in 1723. The first son, born 4 September 1729, became the dauphin and heir to the throne, though he did not live to rule. When he first took his position, the state had a budget deficit of 60 million livres, and a long-term debt of 100 million livres. Following the advice of his preceptor Fleury, Louis XV appointed his cousin Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, to replace the late Duke of Orléans as prime minister. In May 1769 the Corsican rebels were defeated at the Battle of Ponte Novu, and Paoli took refuge in England. Poor old Louis the 16th. Unfortunately, that … [47], Within Paris, the battle between the King and Parlement was fought over the status of the Hôpital Général, a semi-religious organization which operated six different hospitals and shelters in Paris, with a staff of some five thousand persons. At birth, Louis XV received a customary title for younger sons of the French royal family: Duke of Anjou. Using the Prussian army as a model, he reformed French military doctrine, making the state and not the officers responsible for training and equipping soldiers. Biographer Michel Antoine wrote that the King's remark "was a manner of evoking, with his scientific culture and a good dose of black humor, this sinister year beginning with the assassination attempt by Damiens and ending with the Prussian victory". The true glory is to spare it. However, the Regent decided she was too young to have children soon enough, and she was sent back to Spain. Often a very intelligent man who takes being King seriously has a father who does not seem like his biological father. He commissioned François Boucher to paint pastoral scenes for his apartments in Versailles, and gave him the title of First Painter of the King in 1765. Le Roi de France perçu par ses Sujets, 1680–1750" ["Disparaging, Hoping, Taking on Reality: the French King as Perceived by His Subjects, 1680–1750"]. Louis XV’s personal influence on French policy became perceptible only after Fleury’s death in 1744. Thus Louis XIV's five-year-old great-grandson Louis, Duc d'Anjou, the younger son of the Duc de Bourgogne, and Dauphin upon the death of his grandfather, father and elder brother, succeeded to the throne and was to reign as Louis XV of France. Rousseau had a resounding success in 1756 with his opera Devin du Village, and was invited to Versailles to meet the King, but he refused. His minister of the Navy and household of the King, the Conte de Maurepas, was in office the entire period. His workshops produced fine furniture, porcelain, tapestries and other goods in the Louis XV Style which were exported to all the capital cities of Europe. His grandfather, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, had three sons with his wife Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria: Louis, Duke of Burgundy; Philippe, Duke of Anjou (who became King of Spain); and Charles, Duke of Berry. Jeffrey Merrick, "Politics in the Pulpit: Ecclesiastical Discourse on the Death of Louis XV". English historian William Doyle wrote: The political story....of the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, by contrast, had too often been scorned, and therefore neglected, as a meaningless succession of petty intrigues in boudoirs and bedrooms, unworthy of serious attention when there were economic cycles, demographic fluctuations, rising and falling classes, and deep-seated shifts in cultural values to analyse. The King distracted himself by secluding himself with the astronomer César-François Cassini de Thury and making astronomic calculations, while the doctors tried, without success, to treat his son. [48], The King's original plans to tax the church also ran into difficulty. A large part of the French Navy had been sunk or captured by the British in the Seven Years' War. During the later years of Louis XV’s reign, an attempt was made to strengthen the waning authority of the crown by withdrawing from the Parlements the privilege of obstructing royal legislation. In February 1765, after the death of Madame de Pompadour, it was closed. His students included The Marquis de Mirabeau and Adam Smith. The king's chaplain refused to give him absolution unless the king renounced his mistress, which he did; Marie-Anne left the court but was reunited with the King a few months later. In August 1774 Louis XVI signed a letter of Official Recognition of Nobility for him (identical to the other illegitimate children of Louis XV). Louis was also eager for a quick settlement, because the naval war with Britain was extremely costly to French maritime trade. In May 1716, he opened the Banque Générale Privée ("General Private Bank"), which soon became the Banque Royal. Louis XV Capet de Bourbon-Vendome of France, King of France, King of Navarre, was born 15 February 1710 in Palace of Versailles, France to Louis de Bourbon (1682-1712) and Marie-Adelaide de Savoie (1685-1712) and died 10 May 1774 inPalace of Versailles, France of smallpox. In June, Frederick of Prussia withdrew from the alliance with France, after gaining the crown of Silesia from the Austrians. A royal decree ordered all the clergy to submit a declaration of their revenue by 17 February 1751, but that day passed without any declarations given. When the intendants attempted to assert their authority and collect taxes from all classes, the Parlements went on strike, refusing to proceed with the judgment of civil cases. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714. In August 1774 Agnès and Aphrodite received from Louis XVI their letters of recognition of nobility (demoiselles issue de la plus ancienne noblesse de France) and following the stipulations leave by Louis XV, each of them obtained a capital of 223,000 livres and a reported annual revenue of 24,300 livres. He responded on 31 January 1761 that the Parlement's complaint "contained principles so false and so contrary to my authority and with expressions so indecent, particularly in connection with my Chancellor who only explained to you my wishes... that I send your letter back to you. When he ignored it, both the Parlement of Rennes and the Parlement of Rouen wrote him again, complaining that he was ignoring "the oath that you took to the nation when accepting the crown." France had constructed Fort Duquesne to defend their frontier against the indigenous Americans; Britain sent the young George Washington with a small force to construct his own fortification, Fort Necessity, nearby. That night, he summoned Madame du Barry, informed her of the diagnosis, and said, "We cannot recommence the scandal of Metz. "[84], The Queen was deeply affected by the death of the Dauphin in 1765, then the death of her father in 1766, and then her daughter-in-law. The French line of succession upon the death of Louis XV in 1774. The arsenals began building new ships; by 1772 the Navy had sixty-six ships of the line, thirty-five frigates, and twenty-one new corvettes. At birth, Louis XV received a customary title for younger sons of the French royal family: Duke of Anjou. He had the greatest bravery, but a bravery that was too modest. France and Austria then went to war with Great Britain and Prussia (Seven Years’ War, 1756–63), but Louis’s continental commitments to the Austrians prevented him from concentrating his country’s resources on the crucial colonial struggle with Great Britain, a country with greater maritime power and overseas resources. After he succeeded to the throne at the age of five, his first cousin twice removed, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, served as Regent of the kingdom until Louis's majority in 1723. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. [21] A list of 99 princesses was prepared, among them being Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Barbara of Portugal, Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark, Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine, Enrichetta d'Este and the Duke's own sisters Henriette Louise de Bourbon and Élisabeth Alexandrine de Bourbon. Louis was the great-grandson of King Louis XIV (ruled 1643–1715) and the son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. This was a complete reversal of France's historic conflict with Austria, which had been underway for nearly two hundred years, and it was shocking to many in the French Court. 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